Evil Pope Francis vs. Ad maiorem Dei: The Infusibility, Instantiationability, Indissolubility, and Ineffability of the Roman Catholic Church
By Joseph Andrew Settanni
[The Church is St. Peter’s concern that like a] “boat has taken on so much water as to be on the verge of capsizing.” – Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI, on 15th July 2017
The above cited, recent words of Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI, one of the most prominent intellectual and surely spiritual leaders of the Church and, more so, the entire world Catholic community as well, should not, however, be ever at all lightly dismissed as merely being the vague or inconsequential musings of just a doddering old fool. He is, definitely, a major prelate of renown and distinction by any measurement, besides being a prolific Christian author and profound thinker. And, his thoughts are truly alarming.
Those specially chosen words, both highly evocative and provocative, ought to then, logically, be a most rather significant and not simply ignored clarion call for the always requisite defense of Holy Mother Church and the Catholic Faith. What are suitable proofs, fully supportive of the great urgency for such a remarkable consideration as statement, set in terms of deep religious truth and holy fidelity?
It is well known, through the study of Catholic theology, that the Roman Catholic Church possesses the spiritual attributes of impeccability, indefectibility and infallibility as the One, Holy, Catholic, Apostolic Church, because it was, in fact, founded by Jesus Christ Himself. All this, however, is in spite of the monumental and ongoing grave crisis in the Church, since Vatican Council II, in the mid-1960s.
A convinced disciple of that wayward Council, evil Pope Francis, in his terrible efforts to radicalize and pervert the Church and its holy purposes, seems to have forgotten the meaning of these attributes in supposedly thinking that they only describe himself and his papal powers. Such, although not seemingly suspected, will yet prove to be his own fatal Achilles’ heel, regardless of the popular press adoring and cheering him and, one suspects, many Satanists secretly applauding him in a snooty snide manner.
There appears to be, one greatly suspects, a (deliberate) sort of forgetfulness that he is only the chief Servant of the Servants of Christ, not an absolute dictator, imperial autocrat, or unrestrainable tyrant. Yes, he is, also, the Successor of the Prince of the Apostles, the Supreme Pontiff of the Universal Church, Primate of Italy, Archbishop and Metropolitan of the Roman Province, and Sovereign of the State of Vatican City known as the Holy See, besides then being the Petrine Apostolic Primate Extraordinaire of the entire Catholic Church no less.
Nonetheless, there is no need for the vilely gross absurdity and obnoxiously worshipful sycophancy of papolatry. He is merely the Vicar of Christ on earth, not a new Incarnation, as many Catholics may so blasphemously suppose, in their unfortunate ignorance and tolerance of papal vanity popularly parading as a feigned humility; his gross pomposity and vile arrogance, moreover, deserves true reprehension and contempt, rates public reproof and scorn, for much papal aggrandizement and pontifical puffery.
In any event, what is important is to avoid hatred toward the current occupant of the Chair of St. Peter, better to pray for his soul’s salvation, and concentrate, instead, on the blessed defense of and love for Catholicism, a miraculous creed. How may this be done?
Strengths of the Orthodox Reformation
With all the above properly kept in mind, there are other theologically orthodox implications and ramifications as to other (read: orthodox-traditionalist) attributes of the Holy Roman Catholic Church. One of these may be denominated infusibility due to the ever ongoing guidance of the Holy Ghost.
This is logically since the combination of impeccability, indefectibility and infallibility ensures that heresy can, thus, never be made formally or officially any valid part of true, meaning authentic, Catholic teaching, hence, the both integral and inherent infusibility of Catholicism, of the hope of the martyrs and the joy of the saints.
It is, as a direct definitional consequence, the only true perfect religion qua genuine faith allowed and sanctioned by Jesus Christ as authentic, meaning defined by Sacred Tradition, Sacred Scripture, and the Magisterium. The spiritual protection of the Divine Paraclete Himself, moreover, fully guarantees this as a dogmatic certainty without question, for God, by definition, loves the Truth and hates all heresies.
Because the salvation history of the Church validly suggests optimism, this provides an ever requisite amplification and reinforcement for the four cardinal virtues of justice, prudence, temperance, and fortitude.
The loved totality of the intellectual and theological defense of the Sacred Faith should then always, therefore, properly include its related infusibility and as a suitable and appropriate means of refuting heretics and the plainly ignorant as well; and, of intellectually, morally, and spiritually reinforcing the important need for holy orthodoxy and a life dedicated to holiness.
This factor of resolute infusibility negates efforts to absurdly strip off elements of the Church as if one could get at, e. g., the “real” onion by peeling at it until nothing is left of it. One sees here absurdity compounded, especially by those who wish to attack or denigrate Catholicism.
Thus, analogously, there is no genuine viable or possible authentic way to get at a “primitive” Church before “Romanist” accretions had supposedly obscured the true religious body; among others, Blessed John Henry Cardinal Newman came to intelligently recognize this most salient and pointed truth, which included his proper total rejection of any assumed via media alternatives as being presumed substitutes.
Another quite readily cognate attribute might be called the Church’s “instantiationability” in that it will exist until the end of the world as the primary empirical and verifiable instance of the ecclesiastical organization on earth representative of the actual intention of Christ to found it as being His one and only Church.
This confidently asserted instantiationability legitimately concerns the instantiation qua representation, within an ecclesial mode of existence as a visible sign of an ongoing reality, present in this world for the salvation of human beings, until the consummation of all time has, at last, occurred. Furthermore, Catholic eschatology and soteriology, of course, both freely affirm this assertion.
Proofs of such overt and supremely Christian instantiation do axiomatically include the all of the Holy Church’s authority, history/historicity, Catholic origins of the Bible, the Biblical sanctions for all its Holy Sacraments, and the fact that the obnoxious heresy of Sola Scriptura is not really supported by the Bible.
Catholicism, therefore, provides an instance of or, moreover, rather concrete evidence seen in adamant support of a particular realization of faith, as is maintained by the ecclesiastical body known as the Roman Catholic Church when properly sustained by orthodoxy, by its holiness and sanctity.
This is, surely, a manifestly definitive means of observed instantiation, as to the theological reality and representation of the fruit of the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ, which was explicitly intended by the Lord and Savior Himself and, thus, ought never to be questioned by any Christian. Catholic Christology and doxology do firmly support this great truth expatiated and elucidated through intelligent religious epistemology.
The Church acts as the both existential and experiential incorporation of an imperative religious and theological entity that defies any intramundane logic and reasoning thrown against it by pragmatists, positivists, materialists, atheist-naturalists, and nihilists all combined or, moreover, multiplied to the nth degree. Meaning that it is hard for most fallen creatures in a fallen world to believe the truth, even when made so obvious.
Consequently, the bold asseveration of instantiationability necessarily affirms the integrity and integral nature of Catholicism being both spiritually and empirically consonant, meaning with the representative characteristics and signs of the Roman Catholic Church, and, more to the specific point here, none other. All this is thoroughly supported by Sacred Tradition, Sacred Scripture, and the Magisterium, of course, being that they, as is taught theologically, are always the inerrant Three Pillars of the Faith.
One more feature may be mentioned as to the clear indissolubility of the Church on earth. The ancient Roman Emperors sought to destroy the work of Christ, the Arian heretics attempted the same, as have other such enemies; the Protestant Revolution claimed it would first surpass and then totally replace the Church; the French Revolution thought it could also destroy Catholicism; the Soviet Revolution tried its hand at a total demolition; in short, the Gates of Hell, repeatedly, have not prevailed to eliminate the One, Holy, Catholic, Apostolic Church.
Even the current heresiarch evil Pope Francis cannot succeed in exterminating the roots of orthodoxy within the Church that will joyously continue long after his evil pontificate. The evident fact of this historically noted indissolubility has manifestly thwarted evil doers, heretics, and other various mischief makers throughout the ages and will, quite predictability, continue to do so in the future.
Traditionalism, as combined responsibly with the dogmas and doctrines that form the blessed centrality and core of the Holy Faith, is to be reasserted athwart the demonic innovative spirit stirred into being by the duplicitous Second Vatican Council, a triumph of Modernism, which holds grace in contempt.
The stubbornly indissoluble nature of the ecclesiastical entity ever encompasses much more than just the physical structures of buildings and the hierarchical offices no matter how extensively considered, inclusive of the entire Vatican power and machinery notwithstanding. The Arian heretics, for instance, had most of the hierarchy and the Church properties in their foul possession for some centuries but still lost in their ultimately futile but highly vigorous attempt to conquer Christ’s creation.
Consideration of the unbreakable nature of the Church means that it is more than just a merely human institution founded by (through merely secular eyes) a bunch of illiterate parlous rabble in and around the obscure Sea of Galilea in ancient Palestine, a low-account province of the once vast Roman Empire. Was it really that “propitious” that the Founder was regarded, by the local authorities, as being merely a crucified Jewish miscreant, an obscure Nazarene carpenter’s (assumed) son?
Anti-Catholic and anti-Christian historians have been, of course, quite inventive as to seeking what they considered to be fairly plausible explanations qua many rationalizations for the incredible survival of the Church. When these assertions are properly placed under any advanced sort of very intensive scrutiny, however, they still fail various tests of plausibility, meaning whenever the miraculous gets conveniently excluded from any such possible pragmatic calculations of terrene success.
Just when it seems to be at the critical point of an expected failure unto ruin and ignominy, more or less, the ecclesial structure and its people appear to rebound somehow or other back to life unexpectedly, for Ecclesiam nulla salus is the truth, the Catholic truth, the sensus fidei, to be ever upheld by instructive dogmatics and Catholicism’s ontological theology.1
The repeated attacks against the Church by militant Arians, aggressive Protestants, both French and Soviet revolutionaries ought, logically speaking, to have killed off any secular or such typical organization a very long time ago. Rather, its very existence must be, thus, regarded as miraculous within such a given context of often quite virulent anti-Catholic and anti-Christian hatred directed, for many, many centuries, against it.
As St. Paul, in Ephesians 6:12, had wisely written, “For our wrestling is not against flesh and blood; but against principalities and powers, against the rulers of the world of this darkness, against the spirits of wickedness in the high places.” Thus, as St. Thomas Aquinas, the Angelic Doctor, truly knew, the superior metaphysical order of reality, therefore, commands the highest attention and respect of Catholicism as to its greatest affirmations.
Catholic orthodoxy definitely knows and teaches that powerful metaphysical forces are battling and struggling, pertaining to that which is of the invisible order but are still more real, much more so, than mere humans typically know. Atheists, pragmatists, positivists, nihilists, and secularist-humanists do, however, scoff at such theological cognizance as being primitive nonsense, meaning as the power of evil gains strength and dominance in the very face of their rationalist superstition.
No basically human institution could have ever withstood the terrific onslaught of so much greatly intensive and rather bitter hatred, denunciation, and persecution for ages and ages, in defense of the Sensus Catholicus.
To suggest otherwise is either blandly ludicrous or shamelessly ignorant of the historical, psychological, sociological, and cultural facts of human reality that would have worn down such an organization into nothingness, after these so many centuries of typically strident condemnation and private and public revulsion and contempt.
Its noted indestructability for ages is an amazing phenomenon well beyond any existential or phenomenological rationalizations that exclude its true nature as a really supernatural institution defiant of mere human will or, on the other hand, reductionistically secular understanding; it is, ultimately, inscrutable because it proceeds from the everlasting will of God, as defended by the Holy Ghost.
The last feature (or mode of knowledge and reflection) to be critically cited, in this article, is ineffability. How is this meant? Toward the very end of his life, St. Thomas Aquinas is said to have admitted that all he had written was just “so much straw,” as to indicate the true utter insignificance of “mere” theology, no matter how extremely profound, when incomparably compared to the Beatific Vision, which he was once permitted to glimpse, for the greater glory of God.
The Holy Mysteries vouchsafed singularly to the Roman Catholic Church are all, ultimately, well beyond any merely human means of expression and thought, comprehension and cognition, which is true to the nth degree. God is, by definition, is entirely limitless; human are not. A notably and conscientiously full listing of the entirety of the attributes of the Supreme Divinity, the Lord God Almighty, the Divine Order Himself, would take up quite a hefty tome, indeed.
Such sacredness, at last, becomes too undefinable, as with secularists thinking that seeing pain and suffering as a privileged path toward grace is not at all understandable; nonetheless, Catholicism has always possessed an axiological regard for affirming religious and theological truth, regarding of all the skeptics, the naturalist-humanists, in the temporal world, past, present, or to come, for secularism, atheism, is but ultimately an empty shell of tautologous contradictions.
Aquinas, therefore, sagaciously taught that humans can only perceive analogously, termed the analogia entis, at best concerning the actually indescribable, truly inexpressible, realities of the final absolutely metaphysical, meaning supernatural, order of things. The Trinitarian Dogma alone, as has been said many times, is a brain buster in and of itself. Besides the great truth that Jesus is the Christ, all the Divine Mysteries together, as taught, defended, and elucidated by the Church, should make any normal human being fall to his knees in worship and fear, love and awe.
The Lord God is, then, inscrutable because the metaphysical order is, by definition, miraculous; for as the spiritually wise G. K. Chesterton would have just paradoxically remarked, if Christianity lacked the miraculous, it could not be believable. He knew that the Church was an exercise of the Divine Will.
Thus, ineffability (synonymous with inscrutability), the last named but not insignificantly recalled or thought the least, ensures that the supernatural order is not to be wrongly neglected when considering what human beings forever owe to God, when thinking about the greatness and majesty of the Holy Catholic Faith. This is why Catholics are required to believe in things that a both visible and invisible.
Finally, when there is that which is set so extremely beyond all human thought and comprehension, cognition and cognizance, one perceives correctly that all of existence is by, in, and through Jesus Christ forever and ever. Amen.
For all of reality is, moreover, purely contingent being; there is no inherent necessity within solely material matter whatsoever. Creation is, therefore, a free gift of God because nothing comes from nothing, nothing ever could. All these principles need reiteration because of a typically disbelieving humanity fixated usually upon the worship of Man, which axiomatically excludes miracles and grace.
But, most intriguingly, why is that which is miraculous so vitally important to the Catholic Faith and its Church as the representative for such a compelling creed? Well, if the Incarnation is not a miracle, what is? And, by the way, how about both the Resurrection and the Ascension thrown in for good measure? St. Augustine, an eminent religious authority, is quoted on the miraculous when saying, “I should not be a Christian but for the miracles.” Such a clear statement, moreover, is very explicit.
He added, in his The City of God, “Although, therefore, the standing miracle of this visible world is little thought of, because always before us, yet, when we arouse ourselves to contemplate it, it is a greater miracle than the rarest and most unheard of marvels. For man himself is a greater miracle than any miracle done through his instrumentality.” And, this thought should be held as being simply axiomatic in nature, for supernaturalism logically defines the very reality of the metaphysical order itself.
The Lord God Almighty, as St. John of Damascus both correctly and concisely put it in his Exposition of the Orthodox Faith, made his disciples, the Apostles, “captive in the net of miracles and drew them up out of the depths of ignorance to the light of the knowledge of God.” In his Exposition of the Apostles’ Creed, St. Thomas Aquinas had clearly written about, “the miracles by which Christ has confirmed holy apostolic doctrine.”
And, of course, all good Catholics must absolutely concur on such a valid point, as with cognate support for and affirmation of the theological virtues of faith, hope, and charity. Aquinas further, interestingly, states in his Commentary on the Sentences, “Miracles demonstrate the veracity of the announcer, not directly the truth of what he preaches.” Finally, one quite instructively learns, from the theologically rigorous Summa Theologica, that, “Miracles are signs not to them that believe, but to them that believe not.”
Centuries later, Blessed John Henry Cardinal Newman, in his Present Position of Catholics in England, had rightly noted: “The Incarnation is the most stupendous event which ever can take place on earth; and after it and henceforth, I do not see how we can scruple at any miracle on the mere ground of it being unlikely to happen.”
In speaking forcefully against the then 19th and early 20th century German Protestant “higher criticism” theology, which sternly rejected the miraculous within Christianity, Chesterton had playfully written, in his brilliant Orthodoxy, ”The only thing still old-fashioned enough to reject miracles is the New Theology.”
Furthermore, in his looking toward the future in The Common Man, “there is every sign of there being a great deal of mysticism and miracle in the twenty-first century; and there is quite certainly an increasing mass of it in the twentieth.” Perhaps, Chesterton easily had in mind the Blessed Virgin Mary’s Miracle of the Sun at Fatima (October 13, 1917), for this year, in fact, will be exactly the 100th Anniversary of that extremely well-documented historical event.
In The Belief of Catholics, Monsignor Ronald A. Knox (a Catholic convert) noted: “I cannot understand people having historical difficulties about miracles. For, once you grant that miracles can happen, all the historical evidence at our disposal bids us believe that sometimes they do.” And, therefore, any truly effective moral and spiritual resistance, needful and righteous opposition, within the Church, prelacy and laity combined, to the present Bishop of Rome’s policies is, seemingly, quite amazingly miraculous, in and of itself. The Age of Miracles, thus, has not yet passed.
Fortunately, many of God’s people, resolutely allied with many loyal and faithful priests, bishops, and cardinals, are the remnant, the seeds, that the current Holy Pontiff, the Bishop of Rome, cannot entirely crush out of existence. In addition, all the seven characteristics or features cited, either collectively or individually, do truly help to constantly both revivify and sanctify Sancta Mater Ecclesia, the earthly home of all Roman Catholics and those who may wish to be united with the Faith, ad maiorem Dei.
And, may the spirit of St. Athanasius always defend the Church, as being ever synonymous with the ultimate Truth, for too often the glory that is Catholicism gets wrongly forgotten, while the Church works for the eternal sanctification of soul. This holy bishop, a Great Lion of the Church, was hunted, hated, and persecuted, for most of his life, by the hierarchy, the majority of whom were Arians. All that is needed is for at least a remnant, the relative few, to keep valiantly fighting on for the blessed Truth of Catholicism regardless of the cost.
Also, in firm reiteration, let not the weighty and profound remarks of Benedict XVI, as to the terribly precarious condition of the Church, go wrongly unheeded by the faithful. Nonetheless, the orthodox reformation cannot be stopped by merely mortal men.2
The goal of all the effort, repentance, pain, and suffering is the salvation of one’s soul, for being able to go to Heaven and possess the seven fantastic but real properties of the glorified/beatified body, as was noted by St. Thomas Aquinas.
These are enumerated as: identity (perfect soul-body unity), integrity (perfected humanity), quality (distinction only by degrees of holiness and existence in prime of life vitality as either male or female), agility (instantaneous transporting of the self anywhere/anytime), subtlety (ability to bypass any/all physical obstructions at any time/place), impassibility (eternal and absolute happiness and everlasting joy with no possibilities whatsoever for any sadness, boredom, etc.), and clarity (an ever impeccable brilliance of being, a magnificent holy beauty forever well beyond all human imagination).
In short, it is blissfully meant to be an eternal Heavenly experience as an immortal being forever so possessing the Divine gift of immortality. Even for sapiential minds, having advanced perspicuity beyond the normal range toward genius or far beyond, this notion is yet incomprehensible and incommensurate within a purely human understanding and comprehension, i.e., cognizance by an imperfect intellect also necessarily bound by its mortal corporeality. In brief, most people think it to be unbelievable, meaning if they lack faith.
One can see immediately why Satan, necessarily kicked out of Paradise forever, seeks vigorously, indeed extremely mightily, to prevent as many people as possible from ever trying to attain holiness on earth, for fear that such people will, thus, make it to Heaven, of course. It is dreadfully distressing, by the way, that Pope Francis is doing his seeming best to assist Lucifer in his so very despicable plans for expanding Hell, the harshest, most punitive, anti-Heaven of them all, beyond human imagination. Our Lady of the Rosary, pray for us!
This is why the Devil’s disciples are usually either as “enlightened” secularist dupes who absurdly insist that he simply does not really exist at all or vicious Satanists who rather enthusiastically lie about the Evil One being supposedly “slandered” by many uncharitable people, assorted religious bigots, or just ignorant fools. Such tautologies are truly laughable, but they do still tend to convince the unwise.
One should not be that surprised, one suspects, if His Holiness should serendipitously come to think that a so lively “dialogue” with the Satan worshippers should be fruitfully commenced; on that staggering point, nothing outrageous should be thought beneath contempt, as easily judging by his past and vast infamies, for this haughty theological adventurer and spiritual swashbuckler, this liturgical bon vivant and doctrinal buccaneer supreme. Further, the Lord knows he has a swinish regard for Catholic truth, though too many dare not admit it publicly or boldly.
Fortunately, for Catholicism, it is not really just a pure coincidence that impeccability, indefectibility, infallibility, infusibility, instantiationability, ineffability, and indissolubility are seven features that do quite neatly match the aforementioned seven attributes of Heavenly beatitude. There is a supernatural reciprocity and symmetry existing that mightily sustains the veracity that metaphysical order is for real, that the Lord God Almighty is for real, because the Gates of Hell shall not prevail against Sancta Mater Ecclesia.
Can the evil Pope Francis, now at 80 years of age no less, really succeed, e. g., where the full terror and might of the hellish Arians, for some brutal centuries, had just ended up so miserably failing? Though he may vainly think otherwise all he wants, the fullness of the life of Church is really not dependent upon the existence of any one individual pope, and it is ever more, much more, than any physical structures.
It can be rightly and easily assumed, therefore, with informed, great and sustained confidence that the previously noted infusibility, instantiationability, ineffability, and indissolubility of the Roman Catholic Church will defeat him and his many nefarious purposes and plans. The forceful protection and proper guidance of the Holy Ghost, moreover, spiritually guarantees this simply to-be-expected outcome.
This will all, moreover, be reciprocally matched to its impeccability, indefectibility and infallibility, added to the powers of Holy Mary, Mother of God, as the Mediatrix of all Graces. These are the ever inherent strengths and gifts of the righteous orthodox reformation that is to follow his papacy, regardless of all his malevolent machinations to the contrary. Sancta Maria, ora pro nobis peccatoribus!
After all, the Holy Father, the Supreme Pontiff, holds only an elected monarchical office, not a tyrannical one, for the love of God should provoke all opposition to vile papal corruption, arrogance, and intrigue. Grace and sanctity will finally defeat him. Because the sanctification of souls is one of the true glories of Catholicism, therefore, confidence is to be placed in Jesus Christ and His Holy Church, not in the doings of any mere miscreant and (relatively) temporary popes.
The pain and suffering caused among many of the faithful by His Holiness, therefore, is not endured just in vain, for provision for salvation is among the greatest boasts and proofs of the truth of Catholicism.3 And, one must logically come to see, in the end, that the true struggle against the Pope is not just some arcane quibbling or “scholastic” sophistry over dogmas, doctrines, liturgy, etc.; it is, through perceiving with spiritual clarity and moral concision, both a surely full-scale and unmitigated metaphysical combat involving the hate-filled forces of Hell.
Nothing less is, thus, being considered regarding the extreme importance of this ecclesiastical civil war that has, in fact, provoked a genuine schism, though few dare so say publicly.4
Verily, of course, there have been good, bad, and even some indifferent popes. Complacency, however, is not being called for here, rather, a thoughtful and reflective appreciation for the entire history of the Church and how it has incredibly survived many, many threats, both internal and external in nature, over many centuries.
But, of course, fasting and saying rosaries are both still needed for combating the great evil ever setting in upon humanity; and yet, faith in Christ should always yield a proper kind of optimism in the midst of such heartbreaking malevolence, as is truly coming from the Vatican itself.
After all, if some average person would have been told, in about the year 60 AD, that the Apostles, some apparent nobodies, would so be the initial and actual vanguard of about 1 billion followers in the world, that person would have, surely, laughed very heartily and would have been also, of course, totally wrong at the same time. Some Great Lion of the Faith will lead the worthy war against blatant heterodoxy and evil heretical teachings.
So, fallen creatures ought to perceive that Jesus the Christ is always the true light of the world. Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto: Sicut erat in principio, et nunc, et semper, et in sæcula sæculorum. Amen.
Athanasius contra mundum!
4.) Unfortunately, very few high prelates are willing to publicly take on this corrupt theologaster, who grossly toys with many supremely venerable Church teachings, having no pious respect whatsoever for established tradition, custom, or prescription. He has a radical social engineer’s Benthamite regard for the past history of the Church, as if it is all just a tediously boring and hoary presence needing major acts of innovation and Protestantizing to the nth degree, whenever he thinks it necessary, of course.
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St. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica
Catechism of the Council of Trent
W. Crocker III, Triumph: The Power and the Glory of the Catholic Church, a 2,000-Year History
Heinrich Denzinger-Peter Hunermann, Enchiridion Symbolorum: A Compendium of Creeds, Definitions, and Declarations of the Catholic Church
Pope Gregory XVI, Commissum Divinitus
Anthony J. Mioni (Editor), The Popes Against Modern Errors: 16 Papal Documents
Blessed John Henry Cardinal Newman, The Development of Christian Doctrine
Ludwig Ott, Fundamentals of Catholic Dogma
Blessed Pope Pius IX, The Syllabus of Errors
Pope St. Pius X, Catechism of Saint Pius X
___________ , Pascendi Dominici Gregis